Europe on the long term 23rd Feb

6th-10th March

Ridging dominates Western Europe, blocking snowfall for the UK and the Alps. The far eastern Alps may do a little bit better. Far Eastern Europe is set to do well in this period with troughing.

11th-15th March

Ridging dominates the European continent, with a +NAO in the Atlantic as a background feature, helping to pave out the Synoptics.

16th-20th March

The +NAO trough strengthens forcing a more zonal setup for the UK, ridging persists for both most of the UK and the Alps.

21st-25th March

The +NAO consolidates and brings zonal conditions for the UK and Scandinavia. Ridging continues over the European Alps.

26th-30th March

The +NAO weakens a bit, and allows ridging to move north back over the UK, while continuing to persist over the Alps.

Climate Drivers

The atmospheric momentum budgets show less positive deposits in the tropics after the spike in January, that had little consequence in terms of changing the pattern. Those tropical deposits are starting to pick up again, because the MJO is making another pass.

The positive deposits between approx 40N-60N and the negative deposits at approx 15N-35N have reestablished, which is essentially a consolidation of the status quo. This means that the strong Atlantic +NAO will continue and the +AO strong vortex state will persist for the next month or so.

The stratosphere is holding firm with a very strong polar vortex state. This means that the Arctic Oscillation is likely to stay positive for quite some time deep into March and probably beyond.

The past 10 days of the MJO being in Phase 6 is behind the somewhat neutralisation of the NAO, which will potentially help bring about decent snowfalls for the UK and the European Alps, as well as the rest of the continent.

After the tropical support has gone away in mid-March, Europe is likely to continue to be subject to bouts of European ridging as predicted by the EC Monthly model above, and to a +NAO base state, fuelled by a strong +AO.


Here are the predictions that I made in November for the European seasonal outlook:

  1. December is expected to more average like.
  2. January and February will be the months that define the image to look like this, the strongest months of the winter.
  3. Scandinavia should expect lower than average snowfall.
  4. UK should expect above average snowfall throughout winter IMO, with the best of the falls in January and February. The falls will be less climatologically significant in the highlands, but it should ultimately be a snowy and cold winter, presuming extratropical and stratospheric forcing goes our way.
  5. The Southern Alps should expect a very good snowfall season, based on a more equator-ward jetstream.
  6. The Northern Alps should expect an average-above average season.
  7. Eastern Europe should expect a colder and snowier than average season.
  8. The Pyrenees should expect an above average snowfall season IMO.

Unfortunately it didn’t really pan out this way:

  1. This did pan out okay.
  2. This of course didn’t pan out, the season didn’t improve in the way I forecasted.
  3. Scandinavia had a pretty good season (as far as I can tell using seasonal charts).
  4. The UK didn’t have a good season at all. So this big call did not pay off and was a failure.
  5. The Southern Alps started off well, but a relatively average winter hasn’t really qualified for an above average season overall.
  6. This is probably the best verification for me (the Northern Alps), it was mostly average and a little bit above average in some areas from what I can tell. Lower down, the verification has not been so great, with less snowfall.
  7. This prediction failed, with Eastern Europe having a pretty meagre season.
  8. And this one failed as well with much of the lower Pyrenees doing poorly. The higher slopes are doing about average, but overall not so great.

So overall Europe was milder and more zonal than I had expected, due to the base state failing to budge throughout the season. Limited stratospheric activity and a strong positive AO helped to fuel a poor snow season for much of Europe.

Thanks so much to everyone who has read the blogs throughout the season. I hoped you enjoyed reading them.

Disclaimer: There is lower skill asssociated with using long range model forecasts to find snow systems. 

Thanks again for reading this European long range snow forecast, follow me on Twitter @longrangesnow and subscribe to my email list by clicking on the tab on the main header above. Enjoy the spring’s worth of skiing, and you will see me again in September and October for next season! I will hopefully see you then.

North America on the long term 16th Feb

4th-8th March

Mild troughing for the Northeast US and the Southern California region. A SE Ridge is persistent in this period, together with a strong +AO and a +NAO. A very strong Aleutian Ridge is in progress as well, per EC Monthly.

9th-13th March

Western US troughing in this period is anchored by a SE Ridge and strong Aleutian ridging, together with a strong +NAO.

14th-18th March

The Western US troughing declines, but the Aleutian ridge and Eastern US ridging are still in place playing into a +NAO-esque Atlantic.

19th-23rd March

Troughing returns to the PNW/BC and the Sierras, again anchored by the Aleutian high and increased Eastern ridging,

24th-28th March

The trend of troughing for the Northwestern US down to Tahoe continues, with the Eastern ridging and Aleutian High still present.

Climate Drivers

The Arctic Oscillation remains in very strong positive territory. This has been assisting snowfall particularly in the Northwestern US, and in British Columbia and Alberta.

The MJO is expected to be briefly within the Phase 7-8 region, which may explain a slight tilt towards the Eastern US in terms of systems, and a slowing down of the snowy pattern for the PNW/BC region. But the +AO will ensure that this will probably not eventuate to much snowfall for the Eastern US. This favourability if you can even call it that, will slow down as we go into March, with the Western US expected to be the big winner of March again.

We see little activity in the stratosphere of consequence that may weaken the strong stratospheric and also tropospheric vortex. GFS notes some hints towards neutrality at the surface, but given the stratospheric base state I would suggest that the +AO theme that has been going on since the start of this year will continue.

The atmospheric momentum budgets show less positive deposits in the tropics after the spike in January, that had little consequence in terms of changing the pattern.

The positive deposits between approx 40N-60N and the negative deposits at approx 15N-35N have reestablished, which is essentially a consolidation of the status quo. A strong Atlantic (+NAO) will continue, the PNW will continue to be favoured in general and the Eastern US will be less favourable for snowfall.


So this has been a hard year for those involved in seasonal forecasts. Here are the predictions I made:

  1. The Interior of the East Coast on the Appalachians and further west is set to have a better than average snowfall season. The East Coastal regions are set to have a mostly average season.
  2. California is set to have a largely below average season. It won’t be absolutely abysmal though, with potentially improving conditions later in the season.
  3. The Southwest of US is set to have a largely average season, with New Mexico doing better than Arizona.
  4. Utah is set to have an average season. Which tends to be pretty good anyway.
  5. Colorado is set to have a mildly above average snowfall season.
  6. The Canadian/Northern US Rockies are set to have a mildly above average season.
  7. The PNW Coastal mountains are set to have a mildly below average season, but I can see them having a better early-mid season compared to California.
  8. The Central Interior US from the Great Plains to the Midwest to the Tennessee Valley is expected to have an above average season for snowfall and deep cold at times.

Per SNOTEL, other NOAA sources, and Rutgers Snow Lab:

  1. The Eastern US had a below average season, not an average one. Better than some others though.
  2. California did have a below average season. So I got that right. We might see some improvements in the next little while, but not as fast as I expected.
  3. I got the Southwest pretty well too, slightly above average in NM, and somewhat below average in AZ.
  4. I got Utah pretty well, perhaps doing a little better than expected.
  5. Colorado went pretty well for my verification.
  6. I got this pretty well for the interior PNW/BC Rockies.
  7. PNW/BC Coast started slow (compared to a decent start for California IIRC), but came out better than I thought originally, with a very good second half of the season.
  8. I did reasonably well in the Great Plains, it was more average in the Midwest, and failed further towards the south. The Central US ultimately didn’t get the strong levels of snow and cold I predicted for this season.

So I did well across most of the Western US, underestimated the PNW Coast a fair bit, and overestimated the Central and Eastern parts of the US in terms of snowfall.

I had expected troughing over the Central North America, instead it angled towards the Northwest, with ridging through the Eastern US.

As always, lessons to be learned, to improve for next season.

Thanks so much for reading. I hoped you enjoyed reading it. 

Disclaimer: There is low skill asssociated with using long range model forecasts to find snow systems. 

Thanks again for reading this North American long range snow forecast, follow me on Twitter @longrangesnow and subscribe to my email list by clicking on the tab on the main header above. I appreciate everyone who has taken the time to read the blog over the season, I will see you next year.

Japan in the long term 9th Feb

24th-26th Feb

GFS and EC Monthly Control show a snowfall event for Central Honshu and Hokkaido, starting on the 24th, after some rain for Honshu on the 22nd and 23rd. This roughly continues to fall in moderate-heavy amounts, until the early parts of the 26th.

March 4th-5th

Rain is forecast for Hokkaido and Honshu on EC Monthly on the 4th of March, after a dry week preceding. Moderate-heavy snowfall begins on the evening of the 4th, into the 5th.

8th-9th March

Rain is forecast from the afternoon of the 4th, overnight, easing in the early hours of the 5th. Cold air is absent around Central Honshu at this extent of the model forecasts.

Climate Drivers

The Arctic Oscillation is in a very strong state in the short-medium term, and is likely to remain so into the long term. We want to see it in the negatives, which of course hasn’t happened very often this year.

Between the +IOD dominated climatic state in the tropics, and the strong tropospheric vortex dominating in the extratropics, we haven’t seen the feasibility for a strong snowfall season in Japan this year.

The Siberian High has mostly been weak, bar for a few brief periods, for the Japanese snowfall season. This has meant that the winds that deliver most of the snow to Honshu have not been driven into the region.

The brief strengthening about a week ago probably helps to explain the good snowfalls that have featured in early February. But now we have seen the Siberian High go weak again, and this is likely to continue for at least the next week per GFS. This means conditions are likely to deteriorate again.

Why has this been so? A weak Siberian High and a strongly positive Arctic Oscillation are roughly interlinked. This has also meant that the +EAMTs that have occurred this season have lacked the capacity to really assert control, because the Siberian base state, like the rest of the atmosphere, has not been accommodating to a snowfall-bearing process.

But speaking of positive East Asian Mountain torques, we may have found the last light left in this season. The 13th-17th Feb period is likely to feature a strong +EAMT (watch the ridge move from Siberia downwards into East Asia, this is the actual process of a +EAMT from a MSLP perspective). This is likely to improve the Siberian High, and create some decent snowfall conditions for the 3rd week of February, possibly continuing through to the 4th week of February.

Afterwards, as projected by the models, I’m expecting a decline in snowfall-bearing conditions in the last days of the month and into March, once the strong +AO retains control in the last 10 days of February, and weakens the Siberian High again.

So basically a poor week ahead, some improvement in terms of snowfall in the last two weeks of February, and then another decline in the last few days of the month, probably continuing through early-mid March.

This will be the last edition of the long range snow blog for Japan this season. I am grateful for everyone’s support this season. The actual long range outlooks over the season have been relatively decent for me in terms of verification.

But of course we have to deal with the seasonal outlook I issued in very late October last year. I called for an above average season with an early start for Honshu, and Hokkaido was forecast to be a slightly above average season.

This was pretty much a failure for me. Despite a few early moments in November, December flat-lined, and the early start wasn’t so. The snowfall season was below average. It just didn’t work out the way I thought it would. So a lot of learning to be done, but hopefully we will do better next year with some new knowledge and hindsight.

Thanks so much for reading.

Disclaimer: There is low skill asssociated with using long range model forecasts to find snow systems.

Thanks again for reading this Japanese long range snow forecast, follow me on Twitter @longrangesnow and subscribe to my email list by clicking on the tab on the main header above. For those of you who don’t watch my other NH forecasts, or the Australian forecast in a few months, I shall see you probably in September or October for a (less extensive for me) seasonal outlook period.

Until then, enjoy the remainder of winter and the seasons to come.

Europe on the long term 3rd Feb

14th-19th Feb

A ridge focused in Southern Europe, per EC 46 model, pushes the jet stream to the north, with an intense +NAO low driving a zonal outlook.

19th-23rd Feb

A strong +NAO and Greenland low shows a zonal pattern for the UK. European ridging dominates the Alps with a dry outlook for it.

24th-28th Feb

Ridging based over the UK and Europe driving a dry and bland outlook, albeit with a +NAO flow in the Atlantic.

29th Feb-4th Mar

A +NAO persists and most of Europe stills faces blocking, but a North African low makes it more interesting for parts of Southern Europe.

5th-9th Mar

Ridging pushes towards the NE slowly away from the Alps, with the Western and Southern Alps benefitting. The Pyrenees and parts of SE Europe also look like they are set to improve. A remaining +NAO like setup keeps Britain in zonal conditions.

Climate Drivers

GWO is currently in a very positive orbit that is contributing to more momentum in the atmosphere than normal. However this has not really translated to the higher latitudes at a strong enough rate.

Most of the strongly positive momentum deposits have occurred in the tropics and subtropics, which have little effect to patterns influenced from the poles.

What does this mean for Europe? Probably not a great amount of push to change the pattern.

There is snow in Britain’s forecast (at least according to long range GFS), but the vibe remains largely cyclonic with a mostly +NAO outlook being retained. So basically not going so much as the seasonal forecast went as expected.

The Alps are having a pretty reasonable season, with a very good start, and slowing right down for much of January, and now picking up with some recent snowfalls. So a bit up and down, a bit of a not so great, mundane season, which summarises much of the NH ski regions at the moment. This isn’t likely to change over the next little while, as there is no real credible deposits of +AAM in the mix towards the extratropics to change things up for Europe.

The one thing that could shake things up is a stratospheric warming event, and we are seeing some disturbance over the next week. The problem is that it is minor.

The overall trend looks pretty slightly upward after the disturbance, a weakening of the stratosphere and then somewhat of a restrengthening of the vortex. Potentially another disturbance is possible later in the month. The reality is that this is not going to make the impact we need to create a proper -AO scenario.

This is reflected by the models:

The AO per EC46 is positive for the next month and a half, while the NAO only makes it back to neutral in March. This shows that the present base state is going to be hard to beat, in terms of proper snowy outbreaks away from the Northern Alps, which will be assisted by the +NAO generated strong jet stream. The colder nature of February helps the UK, but it still sees a zonal outlook ahead with little sign of avail.

The MJO shows some signs of moving into Phase 5-6-7 in mid-February in some capacity, which may help to dampen the strong +AO base state down the line later this month (Phase 6 of the MJO plus 10 days teleconnects to a -NAO). But again, these sorts of changes are gradual. So don’t expect sudden change anytime soon, we will continue to see an up and down, largely underwhelming climatic outlook for most of the European snow regions. But we may see improvement later in February.

Thanks so much for reading. I hoped you enjoyed reading it. 

Disclaimer: There is lower skill asssociated with using long range model forecasts to find snow systems. 

Thanks again for reading this European long range snow forecast, follow me on Twitter @longrangesnow and subscribe to my email list by clicking on the tab on the main header above.

North America on the long term 22nd Jan

Here is the long awaited North American update, with extensive analysis in the climate drivers section towards the bottom. Also includes model analysis….

4th-8th February

Per EC Weeklies, Labrador and Aleutian ridging hold a low over NW North America stretching down to the SE US. This would to bring snow and cold to the Central and Eastern US.

9th-13th February

A similar setup, but ridging to the south reduces impacts towards the north of the US, with Canadian troughing remaining.

14th-18th February

Ridging increases over most of the US, with Northern troughing pushed towards and into Canada. Aleutian ridging starts to move towards Canada, and a low grows south of the Aleutians.

19th-23rd February

-EPO ridging builds, reducing snowfall for Western US, but increasing it for NE US, driven by ridging building to the west and south, and laid out by the North Pacific low.

24th-28th Feb

The Aleutian Low continues to strengthen, and so does -EPO ridging. Troughing is restricted to the NE US and Atlantic Canada/Quebec towards Greenland, and just off the SW US.

Climate Drivers

CFS above shows the present MJO pulse, weakening into Phase 7/8, reducing the influence of the tropical wave. However it’s weaker, yet present impact still carries to the Atlantic. CFS notes hospitable tropical conditions for the long term in the Central/Eastern Pacific region, which may work well for the Eastern US.

However the opposite pulse through Maritime Continent will mean that there is unlikely to be another lap of the MJO around for quite sometime into February. Once the MJO signal fades, it is unlikely that we will have a strong tropical influence besides the lack of convection over Maritime Continent. This is probably not going to mean a sustained pattern change, and looks to more of a continuation to the up and down nature of the climate this year.

EPS-46 still shows that base state in the Western Indian Ocean (albeit slowly weakening in late Feb and early March), unlike CFS. It shows the same Maritime Continent conditions, but for a shorter period. EPS shows some sort of Phase 3-4-5-6 progression fo the tropical signal in Mid February. This is more likely to work out for the Western US, particularly with those earlier phases California.

The GWO (above) (represents extratropical impacts) is currently going through an abnormally positive orbit through GWO Phases 6 & 7. This has firmly established stronger momentum in a global context. The question is whether this is a once-off, or the sign of a new phase in terms of atmospheric conditions globally.

The vast majority of momentum has been added into the tropics, by the very strong recent MJO pulse. That addition of momentum has now subsided with the strong Frictional Torque back to neutral.

You can see above in the NH, the positive momentum in the poles and the negative momentum in the extratropics. Ideally IMO this would be reversed. The poleward mild +AAM deposits are just adding to a +AO state, which is benefitting the PNW/BC in terms of snowfall, and not so much for the Eastern US.

Strong mountain torque is expected to be sustained for a decent period of time, currently sustained by +MTs in North America and the Andes, and soon to be controlled by a strong +EAMT driven from the last few days of Jan into the early days of Feb. This is going to sink lots more momentum into the Pacific basin. We should see the impacts of this in the 5th-20th of February period.

So what I’d argue for is a change from the existing pattern that benefits the PNW/BC, towards one on the Western US that benefits the SW and California more for mid-February. I’d also argue that the mid-February period is likely to have elevated cold and snowfall risks for the Eastern US. This is all due to a jet extension of the North Pacific jet at it’s peak 7-10 days after the +EAMT event. We are also seeing some medium term trends of heading towards more equator-ward movement for the jet stream.

The one other block in this puzzle, the Arctic Oscillation threatens to dampen the impacts of this tropical to extratropical momentum transport.

EPS refuses to change its AO base state at all, as above. CFS also remains positive until late February, for a decent dip into the negatives during early-mid March.

In terms of the stratosphere, we have some decent wave-1 amplitudes coming through, leading us to this signal in 10 days:

As you can see this struggles to make much of a dent on the SPV, other than the typical slow demise, that does little towards changing the AO pattern. There’s still a chance of a SSW later in Feb or even March, but each day and each forecast that goes on reduces those chances.

  • PNW/BC/Northern Rockies to remain good for the next fortnight, reducing in the second week of Feb.
  • California/the SW/Southern Rockies to improve for the latter half of February (maybe a bit earlier)
  • Eastern US expected to improve for the last 15-20 days of February (2nd-3rd weeks of Feb, possibly into the 4th week) IMO.
  • These impacts may be reduced/weakened by Arctic influence, etc.

Thanks so much for reading. I hoped you enjoyed reading it. 

Disclaimer: There is low skill asssociated with using long range model forecasts to find snow systems. 

Thanks again for reading this North American long range snow forecast, follow me on Twitter @longrangesnow and subscribe to my email list by clicking on the tab on the main header above. 

Japan on the long term 13th January

Well the not so great Japanese snowfall season continues, and with that comes more analysis looking into the later parts of the snowfall season.

25th-27th January

The 26th of January, or Australia Day is forecasted by EC Monthly to feature heavy rainfall for Central Honshu, with some snowfall for Northern Honshu. The low moves across over the 27th.

28th-31st January

As the low slowly moves across Honshu on the 27th, we start to see a gearing up for a period of big snowfall created by another low, this time in the Sea of Japan, for the 28th, 29th and 30th of January for Honshu and Northern Hokkaido. We really start to see cold air come down with this one, as forecasted by EC. The snowfall should ease over the 31st.

1st-5th February

EC Monthly shows a strong lake/sea effect snowfall event moving over Honshu and much of Hokkaido starting over the early hours of the 1st of Feb, and not easing until the morning of 5th of Feb.

7th-8th February

This marginal low pressure system would deliver per EC, rainfall to lower altitudes and snowfall to higher altitudes and further north on Honshu over the 7th of Feb, easing in the early hours of the 8th.

Climate Drivers

Well my seasonal prediction (for a good early season) has gone pretty bad this year. Largely because of the base state that has been over the Indian and Pacific Ocean basins. In order to bring Japanese snowfall, we want consistent positive East Asian Mountain Torques, which bring strong Siberian Highs that drive snowfall into Honshu and Hokkaido.

This year we have had a weaker than normal Siberian High, and a weaker than normal Aleutian Low. This is part of why not much activity has occurred in the stratosphere, but also why lows haven’t been passing from the north, and the cold air in Siberia is less organised and less able to move down into Japan.

GFS forecasts this weaker activity to persist in the short term and improve in the longer term. This may help our prospects for snowfall in the last 10 days of January and into February.

Instead of a strong Siberian High and mechanism to bring lake/sea effect snowfall conditions, we have seen low pressure consistently present in East Asia, bringing lows down along the Pacific coast of Japan and bringing rainfall to Honshu.

+EAMTs in the past few weeks are currently helping snowfall conditions a bit, bringing more favourable surface conditions, but the medium term is likely to bring more unfavourable East Asian troughing with current and forecasted -EAMT.

A MJO pass through Phase 7 in the Pacific is likely to help improve conditions for late January and early February for Japanese snowfall. Based on this “timetable”, mid February will be the lull and late February will see an improvement into March.

Overall the weird nature of this season and the current climatic conditions has reduced my certainty of the state of things. But I certainly see potential for some improvement for the later stages of the Japanese snowfall season with some decent snowfall events on the horizon, given the (slowly) improving Indian Ocean base state. But it shouldn’t be taken as a given, the guidance shows little in the way of positive tropical activity for February. It would lack the amplitude needed to get past the East Asian troughing and the poor state of the Siberian High at this time.

The stratosphere and the Arctic state are hardly satisfying for those who want a repair to the Siberian Ridging problem. A +AO tends to be poor for Japanese snowfall. My confidence on a late season SSW is weakening, but still very much a possibility.

In summary, I believe the last ten days of January and the first week of February should be more desirable in terms of snowfall prospects. But caution should be taken with a lurking -EAMT in the region. I’m somewhat optimistic, but the potential for turbulent times is still there. Probably not so great for much of the remainder of February IMO. It all depends on the progression of the current climatic base state, and the conditions closer to the Arctic and in Siberia.

Thanks so much for reading. I hoped you enjoyed reading it.

Disclaimer: There is low skill asssociated with using long range model forecasts to find snow systems.

Thanks again for reading this Japanese long range snow forecast, follow me on Twitter @longrangesnow and subscribe to my email list by clicking on the tab on the main header above.

Europe on the long term 7th January

Here are the climate models with analysis, and the climate drivers analysed below to see our snowfall chances.

21st-25th January

EC shows a consistent ridge across Europe, bringing dry conditions to the European Alps (both sides), the UK and the rest of Europe for the later stages of this month.

26th-30th January

We certainly see a more zonal look in the last days of January for the UK and the Northern Alps, although the Alps and Southern Europe are still controlled by a ridge.

31st Jan-4th Feb

Similar themes on EC persist into February with a +NAO zonal look for the UK, reasonable conditions for the Northern Alps with the zonal wind kick from the NW, but mostly dry for the Alps and Southern Europe

5th-9th February

EC shows the ridging influence waning in Southeastern Europe that may improve conditions there. The ridge persists over the Alps, and increases its influence over the UK and Scandinavia.

10th-14th January

Southeastern Europe is certainly under a more snow conducive environment, helping out the Eastern Alps with snowfall. The zonal look continues, but ridging also dries out the outlook for the Northern Alps and the UK.

15th-19th Feb

An Atlantic ridge blocks precipitation to the UK, but we see good conditions for snowfall in the Southern Alps, and the rest of Southern Europe on this final period on EC.


The GWO is currently in Phase 8-1, and is forecast to proceed through the lower phases of GLAAM orbit over the middle two weeks of January. This is likely to keep the current +AO/+NAO phase in a holding pattern, waiting for the next GWO cycle through the positive phases. The past cycle has been so far inadequate in getting the momentum deposits in the right areas for a less zonal outlook.

Frictional torque is currently negative, showing the ability for a negative orbit for the GWO, with the Mountain torque expected to follow.

What is likely is the continuing of a zonal climate in the Atlantic, and the development of European ridging in late January. There is potential for a change in this situation for Europe, and particularly the UK in early-mid February, but this is subject to various dynamic variables. That is when I’d have a chance for more cold and snowy conditions for the Southern Alps and Southern Europe (in the latter three weeks of February, and potentially into Spring). But the next month should favour snowfall for the Northern Alps, with periods of snowfall for the South as well.

The outlook for a more unsettled colder outlook for the UK and Southern Alps/Europe is exclusive to mid-late February into March for the time being, given the current zonal state will take a lot to dismantle.


Over the next 10 days, we are going to see MJO influence over the Phase 6-7 region, which is supportive of a -NAO after 10 days, so around the 15th-25th of January. Given the current climatic state, it’s unlikely to see a proper -NAO state, but we do see a reduction in the base state with neutral NAO conditions in this period, per EPS.

In my mind, the NAO will:

  • Drop in the 15th-25th Jan period.
  • Increase in the last week of the month into February.
  • Then possibly decline in the second and third weeks of Feb.

I expect the next MJO cycle in Phase 6-7 to coincide in early-mid February. So maybe it might improve for the UK a little bit later in the month, with the best conditions for the winter in mid-late February…


The Stratospheric Polar Vortex is under some stress in the medium term, but is likely to remain strong (no SSW yet):

Conditions are somewhat conducive for a SSW in February or early March, per QBO and Brewer-Dobson Circulation factors. This favours the Northern Alps for the time being.

Thanks so much for reading. I hoped you enjoyed reading it. 

Disclaimer: There is lower skill asssociated with using long range model forecasts to find snow systems. 

Thanks again for reading this European long range snow forecast, follow me on Twitter @longrangesnow and subscribe to my email list by clicking on the tab on the main header above.

North America on the long term 30th December

Say hello to my next outlook for North America, enjoy…

10th-14th January

We see Alaskan ridging develop on EC Weeklies, with a Western US a troughing pattern and a Eastern US ridging pattern angled in from the North Atlantic.

15th-19th January

Similar scenes of Alaskan ridging – Western US troughing – Eastern US ridging in this particular period.

20th-24th January

The strong Western US trough weakens, along with the strong +AO/+NAO, yet there remains two dominant ridges on the East Coast and south of Alaska.

25th-29th January

Then comes the school of thought, that shows the Alaskan ridge starting to suppress snowfall for the PNW/BC region, with more snowfall for the SW. The East Coast ridge dominates the central and eastern parts of the US.

30th Jan – 3rd Feb

The -EPO (British Columbia) ridge weakens snowfall for the Northern parts of America. A SE ridge weakens snowfall chances for the East Coast except in New England.

4th-8th February

Again ridging dominates over the PNW, and much of the East Coast as well, with the best snowfall in this period to be found in the SW states and in New England.


We are currently seeing some sort of Phase 7-8 MJO influence, which is giving a bit of a helping hand for the Eastern US over the next 10 days or so. It’s also behind the -SOI drops, that have been seen going around.

A dominant Indian Ocean suppresses a significant pattern change in mid-January. So more of the same really, a weak winter in the Eastern US and a decent winter in the Western US.

We may see conditions improve for the PNW, but we also need to be wary of incursions of ridging in the Aleutian region towards the West Coast.

We see signs of a more dominant Western Pacific in late January, which would improve conditions in the Eastern US for February.


We are currently in the positive phases of the GWO, which gives us some moments for troughing in the Eastern US, and then you get a -EAMT > Aleutian ridging > Western US troughing > Eastern US ridging regime for much of January.

We have GWO Phase 5, but that will head to Phase 8 in the next week, and then go for another orbit in the neutral/negative phases in the first two weeks of January. Then you have to wait for the next orbit of the GWO probably later in January and early February to see more positive values for the GLAAM.

This is likely to lead to reasonably good conditions for snowfall in the first 10 days of January for the Eastern US, before Aleutian ridging and a reduction in momentum makes conditions less suitable for the majority of the rest of January for the Eastern US.

This is likely to bring upon Western troughing for the middle two weeks of January, with potentially the best snowfalls in the PNW and in British Columbia, but still reasonably good potential in the Rockies and the Southwest.

Like the EPS modelling acknowledges, there is potential that the Alaskan ridge reaches over into the BC/PNW region later in the month, and to therefore suppress snowfall there.

Stratosphere and Arctic Oscillation

The stratosphere is pretty neutral, and the best chances of a SSW are further down the road.

The overall model consensus is that the Stratospheric Polar Vortex is likely to strengthen over the next two weeks. There is a still a good chance for a SSW in February however, just not during the current climatic conditions.

This is keeping a +AO intact, which is reducing the chances for Eastern US snowfall, and increasing the chances for Western US snowfall.

EC Weeklies are forecasting a consistent positive Arctic Oscillation through to February.

The main conclusions to draw here is that the Eastern US will have a decent chance in early January, then a weaker pattern for the rest of the month, with a potential improvement in February.

The PNW will find the next two-three weeks good, but lesser so later in Jan perhaps. The rest of the Western US will do fine, but it could get better again later in January.

Thanks so much for reading. I hoped you enjoyed reading it. 

Disclaimer: There is low skill asssociated with using long range model forecasts to find snow systems. 

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Japan on the long term 27th Dec

Sorry for a long wait for another update, here’s the next edition of the Japanese long range snow forecast.

9th-10th of January

EPS Control shows us a system on the 9th-10th of January, spear-headed by a low over Hokkaido, bringing heavy snowfall there.

It also features moderate-heavy snowfall for Honshu, but temperatures aren’t as great particularly the further south you get.

12th-13th of January

A low sweeps to the south, bringing heavy snow to higher elevations of Central Honshu and heavy rain to the lower elevations over the 12th, easing over the 13th on the EC Monthly model.

14th-19th of January

On the 14th and 15th, weak winds and westerlies bring light-moderate snowfall to Central Honshu. On the 16th, NW winds come in to bring moderate-heavy snowfall for Honshu and parts of Hokkaido, and then easing on the 17th. On the 18th and 19th, another bout of NW winds brings more snowfall for Central Honshu on EC Monthly.

21st-24th of January

On the 21st and 22nd of Jan, EC Monthly forecasts moderate-heavy snowfall for Honshu. This eases over the 23rd and the morning of the 24th.

25th-28th of January

A very strong and cold system brings heavy snowfall on the 25th of Jan to Honshu and parts of Hokkaido. This systems continues through to the 27th and 28th.

Climate Drivers

East Asian Mountain Torque

We are currently in a negative EAMT, and this is part of the reason why rain is associated with the systems arriving in the short term. It means that there is troughing in China, which allows rain-bearing lows to develop to the south of Japan.

I expect a positive EAMT to develop in the next few days to counter the current negative trend for a brief moment. This helps to develop ridging in Eastern China, which improves our chances for snowfall in the first 10 days of January.

However from about the 1st to 3rd of Jan, we will see another -EAMT come into play, and this one could be sustained for a while. This would increase chances of rainfall and decrease cold in the middle two weeks of January from Japan.

As you can see in the model guidance, the troughing over Siberia early in January weakens the Siberian High, which weakens our chances for cold and snowfall in Japan as well.

Arctic Oscillation

The AO is looking positive in the medium term, and throughout January, which decreases the chance of strong snowfall for Japan.


The stratosphere is likely to remain stable in the early stages of January, because of a lack of tropospheric setup to help a weakening of the Stratospheric Polar Vortex. There still are decent background conditions for a potential SSW later in January or February. A SSW would improve conditions for the Japanese later season.


A Phase 7 MJO is good for Japanese snowfall. The forecast that we briefly pass through it on RMM indexes helps to explain the forecast for a good period of snowfall in early January.

Thanks so much for reading. I hoped you enjoyed reading it.

Disclaimer: There is low skill asssociated with using long range model forecasts to find snow systems.

Thanks again for reading this Japanese long range snow forecast, follow me on Twitter @longrangesnow and subscribe to my email list by clicking on the tab on the main header above.

Europe on the long term 16th December

Here is the latest European outlook for snowfall prospects on the long term.

1st-5th January

In this period, EC Monthly shows troughing over the Alps and Southern Europe, with Scandinavian ridging/-NAO present. Warmer than normal for parts of Western Europe, and colder than normal for Eastern Europe.

6th-10th January

Troughing anomalies over Far Eastern Europe and off the Atlantic Coast of the British Isles, along with a Scandinavian high are present for this period on EC Monthly. Warmer than normal for Southeastern Europe. CFS is forecasting European ridging for this period.

11th-15th January

Scandinavian ridging and North African ridging are reducing troughing risks for Southern Europe, and increases it for Northeastern Europe on EC Monthly. Cooler than normal for parts of Eastern Europe. Wetter than normal for Southeastern Europe. CFS still forecasts European ridging to continue, but troughing develops towards Southeastern Europe.

16th-20th January

Ridging over Spain reduces snowfall over the Alps, and creates a zonal pattern over the UK, per EC Monthly. Warmer than normal for Western Europe including the Western Alps and the UK. Wetter than normal for the UK.

21st-25th January

Ridging over Southern Europe on EC Monthly reduces snowfall for the Alps, particularly for the South. A low in Scandinavia ensures a zonal pattern for Northern Europe. Warmer than normal for Southern Europe and the Alps, neutral for the UK. CFS forecasts more European ridging and a zonal pattern for UK.

Arctic Oscillation

The AO/NAO are both negative in the medium term per EPS Monthly, until the New Year. The impacts of this should continue into the first week of January, before a return to more zonal conditions.


A positive mountain torque is expected over the next few days worldwide, with the East Asian component lasting a few days and quickly heading back to negative. This is probably enough to dampen the fall of the GLAAM and head us through Phase 2 & 3 in the GWO over the next fortnight, eventually landing us in Phase 4 again as we enter the New Year.

If we take the composites:

We see a -NAO setup develop in GWO Phase 1 with a lag. This spawns a good couple of weeks for the Southern Alps IMO, with meridional setups created by the GSDM. In Phase 3 & 4, we start to see this breakdown into a more zonal pattern in the Atlantic, which is preceded by the development of a European High, particularly for the North. So I’d argue for a -NAO being present for much of the next two weeks, based on the factors that run through the GSDM. This -NAO will continue into the New Year for a little bit, but should start to wind down as the GLAAM heads into the more positive momentum orbits.

This means more cold and snowfall for the UK, even though the NAO’s alignment in this case is crucial and may weaken cold risks for the UK.

This also means a case for good snowfall for the Southern Alps, and probably less so for the Northern Alps. The rest of Southern Europe should benefit from this.


GEFS continues the consistent IO focused base state, but shows some signs of convection around the Atlantic over the next week.

EPS forecasts the IO base state to strengthen over the 10 day period, and then weaken in the last week of December. This allows the Western Pacific to take control more so, within the pattern.

EPS shows some signs of the forecast heading towards a Phase 6 in the MJO for the New Year, after RMM prescribed neutrality in the next two weeks. This would contribute to a -NAO potentially, but also add to momentum that would diminish the -GLAAM base state.


All this talk of meridional anomalies is likely to be dampened after the next week or so, by the downwelling strong SPV anomalies moving down into the troposphere. When it precisely does manage to weaken the -NAM is unclear, but it’s likely to occur from the last week of Dec or perhaps the first week of January next year. When it does the EPS Monthly forecast used in the models section of the blog is more likely to manifest, with the drivers influencing a relaxation of any cold risks for mid-January.


  • Fair to say that the next two-three weeks are likely to feature some potential for cold and snowfall risks for the UK and Southern Europe. This doesn’t mean snowfall is necessarily imminent for the UK, just that potential is enhanced. This effect may be stronger for Southern Europe, as opposed to the UK, as the anomalies lack a lot of strength.
  • This is generated by the -GLAAM state going through a low orbit of the GWO and the current -AO and -NAO state.
  • This period is likely to end around the first week of January, when a more zonal pattern takes root for the middle section of January. This would favour snowfall for the Northern Alps.
  • A potential next period for -NAO and -AO risks would be early in February, maybe.

Thanks so much for reading. I hoped you enjoyed reading it. 

Disclaimer: There is lower skill asssociated with using long range model forecasts to find snow systems. 

Thanks again for reading this European long range snow forecast, follow me on Twitter @longrangesnow and subscribe to my email list by clicking on the tab on the main header above.